Simple knowledge of mechanical safety production

First, the content summary:
To check the familiarity of the candidates with the types of risk elements and mechanical intrinsic safety requirements of main apparatus and places during the produce and usage of machinery.
Second, the key factors, difficult factors:
(1) Understand the primary categories of mechanical products;
(2) Understand the intrinsic safety requirements of mechanical design and the type of safety gadget of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler space, surroundings compressor station, gas place, oxygen place, acetylene station harmful point and general safety technology management requirements.
Third, the content clarifies:
Machinery is a gadget that is assembled by a amount of interconnected components and can perform certain functions. During the operation of the mechanical apparatus, at least some of the essential contraindications motions are made according to certain guidelines. The full mechanical gadget consists of a prime mover, a control and control system, a transmission mechanism, a support gadget and an actuator.
Equipment is an essential products in contemporary creation and life. While bringing high truck gear efficiency, quickness and convenience to people, the machine also brings mechanical harm such as effect, extrusion, slicing and other nonmechanical risks such as electric surprise, noise and high temp during its manufacture, operation and make use of.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of employees in the entire process of production and utilization of machinery, from various hazardous factors. Mechanical security contains two aspects of the basic safety of mechanical product developing and the safety of mechanical equipment.
1.1, mechanical item manufacturing safety
(1) Main classes of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The main items of the equipment market are as comes after:
(1) Agricultural machinery: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting machinery, etc.
(2) Weighty mining equipment: metallurgical equipment, mining machinery, lifting equipment, loading and unloading equipment, industrial and mining vehicles, cement tools, etc.
(3) Construction equipment: forklifts, earthmoving machinery, compaction equipment, concrete machinery, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and air flow conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electrical machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electric motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electric welding devices, household devices, etc.
(6) Machine tools: metallic trimming machine tools, forging devices, foundry machinery, woodworking equipment, etc.
(7) Vehicles: trucks, road buses, cars, modified vehicles, motorbikes, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automatic tools, electric tools, optical tools, component analyzers, motor vehicle instrumentation, electrical apparatus, audio-visual equipment, cameras, etc.
(9) Fundamental machinery: bearings, hydraulic parts, closes, powder metallurgy products, standard fasteners, commercial chains, gears, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metal packaging items, metallic containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, atmosphere pollution prevention equipment, solid waste treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Additional machinery.
The primary products of the non-mechanical industry include railway equipment, construction machinery, textile machinery, light commercial equipment, and maritime machinery.
(2) Mechanical safety design and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Safety style minimizes risk. Mechanical safety design refers to the correct shape and relative placement from the component materials to the component in the mechanical style stage, from restricting the operating pressure, the quality and rate of the moving parts to reducing noise and vibration, using intrinsic protection technology and power resource, applying zero The process of pressured mechanical action between components, combined with ergonomic desk concepts and additional methods, avoids or decreases the risk by choosing suitable design constructions; it can also enhance the reliability, operation mechanization or automation of the devices and Measures such as adjustments and maintenance outside the risk zone to avoid or decrease the danger.
Intrinsically safe
Intrinsic safety is normally a mechanical safety method that is definitely used by mechanical designers to take measures to get rid of mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic basic safety technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions simply by using this technology. It can meet the protection requirements of the machine itself when performing predetermined features of the machine under predetermined circumstances without using various other safety safety measures. These include: staying away from razor-sharp edges, sharp sides and bulges; ensuring adequate security distances; determining limitations on physical amounts; using intrinsically safe procedures and power sources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a adequate safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Protection of components and materials
Materials, fuels, and components utilized to produce equipment must not endanger the basic safety or health of employees during make use of. The mechanical properties of the material, such as tensile power, shear power, impact strength, produce limit, etc., should meet the load requirements for executing the intended function; the materials should become able to withstand the predetermined environmental conditions, such as corrosion resistance, maturing resistance, and level of resistance. The ability to use; the material should possess uniformity, prevent the metallographic structure of the materials from becoming uneven due to unreasonable process design, and generate residual tension; at the same period, avoid using harmful materials or substances, and should prevent the equipment itself or due to use. The risk of fire and explosion from gases, fluids, dirt, vapors or additional substances produced by certain materials.
4) Fulfilling safety ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the basic safety man-machine design principle is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, work space design, etc., enhancing the operability and reliability of mechanical equipment, and making the operator’s physical power Usage and emotional tension are reduced, thereby reducing functional errors.
5) Safety concepts for designing control systems
During the use of machinery, the typical harmful conditions are: unintended start, out of control of rate alter, movement can easily not end, moving mechanical parts or workpieces fall off, the function of safety devices is normally blocked. The design of the control program should take into accounts the working settings of the several operations or the use of problem screen gadgets so that the agent can handle them properly.
6) Prevent the risks of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Devices that make use of pneumatic, hydraulic, thermal, and other gadgets need to be designed to avoid the potential risks associated with animal launch of these energies.


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