Ac electric motor


Working principle
AC motor is certainly a device which converts alternating current right into a mechanical device through the use of an electromagnetic induction phenomenon. The AC motor consists of two basic parts another stationary stator having coils supplied with an alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field and an internal rotor attached to the output shaft generating another rotating magnetic field.

The rotor can be an electric conductor which is suspended inside a magnetic field. Because the rotor is continually rotating there is a modify in magnetic field. Based on the Faraday’s law, this alter in magnetic field induces an electric current in the rotor.

Types of AC Electrical Motor
The AC motors can be basically categorized into two categories, synchronous, and asynchronous motors
Synchronous Motor
These motors operate at a synchronous speed and convert AC electrical power into the mechanical power.
When the power supply is put on the synchronous motor, a revolving field is established. This field tries to drag the rotor towards it but due to the inertia of the rotor, it cannot perform it. So, you will have no starting torque. As a result, the synchronous motor isn’t a self-starting motor.

Principles of operation

This motor has two electrical inputs. One is the stator winding which comes by a 3-phase supply and the various other one may be the rotor winding which comes by a DC supply. Thus, two magnetic fields are stated in a synchronous motor.

The 3-phase winding produces 3-phase magnetic flux and rotor winding produce continuous flux. The 3-stage finding generates a magnetic field which rotates at a velocity called synchronous speed.

When rotor and stator start rotating, at some point the rotor and stator have the same polarity causing a repulsive force on the rotor and for another second, they cause an attractive pressure. But rotor continues to be in standstill condition due to its high inertial moment. Therefore, the synchronous engine is not self-starting.


The motor speed is constant irrespective of the load.
Electromagnetic power of the synchronous motor varies linearly with the voltage.
In comparison to an induction motor, it operates in higher efficiencies at decrease speeds

It is not self-starting. It needs some arrangement for beginning and synchronizing.
Since its starting torque is zero, it cannot be started whilst having a load
It can’t be used for applications which require frequent starting and when self-starting is required.

Conveyor systems
Variable transformers
Cryogenic pumps
Induction Motor
The induction motor can be named as Asynchronous not since it always runs at a speed less than the synchronous speed. The induction engine could be classified into primarily two hzpt motor sub-types. The single-phase induction engine and the 3-stage induction motor.

In an induction motor, the single armature winding acts both as an armature winding in addition to a field winding. The flux is usually produced in the air flow gap whenever the stator winding is supplied to the Atmosphere Gap. This flux will rotate at a fixed speed. Therefore, it’ll induce a voltage in the stator and the rotor winding.
The current flow through the rotor winding reacts with the rotating flux and produces the torque.

Basic Working Principle

When an AC supply is fed to the stator winding within an induction electric motor, an alternating flux will be produced. This flux rotates at an asynchronous swiftness and this flux is called the rotating magnetic field. Due to the relative speed between your stator RMF and rotor conductor, an induced EMF can be created in the rotor conductor. A rotor current is certainly then produced because of this induced EMF.

This induced current lags behind the stator flux.

The direction of the induced current is in such a way that it will oppose the foundation of its production. The foundation of the production may be the relative velocity between rotor stator flux and rotor. The rotor will try to rotate in the same direction as a stator to be able to decrease the relative velocity.

The speed of rotating magnetic field is given by

DC motor

Single phase induction Motor
AC electric engine which utilizes solitary phase power supply is named single phase induction is commonly used in the household and commercial includes stator and Rotor part. A single-phase power is given to the stator winding. A squirrel cage rotor laminated with the iron primary is connected to a mechanical load by making use of the shaft.
Principle of operation

When the single-phase supply is given to the stator winding an alternating flux will produce in the stator winding.

A squirrel cage electric motor is mounted on the mechanical load with the aid of the shaft. Due to the rotating flux in the stator, an alternating electromagnetic field can be induced in the rotor. But this alternating flux didn’t provide needed rotation to the rotor. This is why the one phase motors aren’t self-starting.

To be able to achieve self-starting convert this single phase motor right into a two-phase electric motor for temporarily. This can be attained by introducing a starting winding


Efficient transmission
Fewer substations required

Cannot handle the overload
No uniform Torque
High insulation cost

Portable drills
Three Phase Induction Motor
When a three-phase supply is linked to the stator winding, this type of motor is named three-phase induction motor. As being a single phase engine, it has additionally both stator and rotor winding. The stator wounded by a 3-phase winding given by a 3-stage supply produces an alternating flux which rotates at a synchronous swiftness.
Working principle

When AC supply is given to the 3-phase winding of the stator, it produces an alternating flux which revolves with synchronous speed. This rotating magnetic field induced an EMF in the rotor which in turn created an induced current which flows in a path which opposite that of the rotating magnetic field, produce a torque in the rotor. The velocity of the rotor will never be same as that of the stator. If quickness matches no torque will produce


Simple and rugged construction
High efficiency and great power factor
Minimum maintenance
Self-starting motor.

Speed decreases with upsurge in load
Speed control is difficult
Having poor starting torque and high rush current.

Large capacity exhaust fans
Driving lathe machines


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